The report has not been made public but has been seen by the BBC.
It found that untrained staff were carrying out risky restraints on patients and that the number of restraints was high.
It said face-down, and particularly face down in a prone position, are the highest tariff interventions of physical restraint, and the most dangerous techniques to deploy.
The report looked at a sample of 40 cases and found more than half were patients being restrained face down on the floor for longer than 30 minutes.
The longest restraint was one hour and 45 minutes.
“That is completely against all guidelines,” Prof Tyrer said.
“You may have to do things for five minutes or up to 10 minutes but to go beyond 40 minutes there is something badly wrong in the organisation of a unit if that is allowed to continue.”
Carseview is a hospital to care for patients with mental illness from depression and anxiety to schizophrenia and psychosis.
In July last year, BBC Scotland broadcast allegations by patients of bullying by staff, illegal drug-taking and being pinned to the floor unnecessarily.
Experts called it abusive and said the unit should be closed down.
NHS Tayside responded by commissioning an internal report into Carseview to go alongside independent reports into mental health in Tayside.
The internal report says a whistleblower has come forward and accused Carseview of “very serious concerns over leadership, safety and malpractice”.
It came up with 11 recommended actions including urgent action on staff training and critical action on illegal drugs on the ward.
It said the restraint policy should emphasise the safety of patients as well as staff and that the culture of the unit should be “based around the caring and compassionate leadership approach”.
NHS Tayside said the recommendations covering patient care and culture were “now being progressed”.
Prof Peter Stonebridge, acting medical director for NHS Tayside, said a “steering group has been established” to focus on restrictive care practices, including the reduction of face-down restraint.
Joy Duxbury, professor of mental health at Manchester Metropolitan University, told BBC Scotland: “I think this is a terribly toxic environment.
“The figures on physical restraint are exceptionally worrying.
“These are very vulnerable clients who are being restrained, in my view, unnecessarily and by far too many staff in too many situations.
“For me, given what we know about psychological and physical trauma of the use of restraint in such setting, this is of significant concern.”
Marnie Stirling, who had two stays in Carseview with anxiety and depression, spoke to the BBC documentary last year.
Reacting to the report, she said: “If you think about mental health, it’s supposed to be about recovery. This isn’t recovery, it’s further punishment for people.”
David Fong spent a month in the unit after experiencing psychosis in 2013.
He claimed staff used restraint violently and repeatedly during his time there.
His mother Lorraine said: “This is a total and utter disgrace that this has gone on for seven years and maybe longer.”
David told BBC Scotland that staff were quick to see frustration and anger arising from detainment as aggression.
“Staff are too keen to initiate restraint and offer little or no de-escalation when no actual aggression has been displayed by the patient,” he said.
“I ask how many of these restraints were actually needed and if some are instigated by staff rather than patients?
“I personally was physically assaulted with the application of intense pain through twisting of arms, wrists and fingers or a member of staff’s knee being dug into my back, had my face rubbed into the floor causing loss of skin from my face, and had verbal abuse screamed at me during restraint.
“I also could not have been the only patient that these tactics were being used upon.”
A separate report looking at the patient experiences came up with separate 23 recommendations in December.
It is feeding into an independent inquiry, which was announced in the Scottish Parliament last year, and is still ongoing.
“Concrete evidence” of how valuable an axed Angus mental health unit was has sparked calls for its return.
It comes after figures revealed Angus mental health sufferers have spent 17,000 days receiving treatment in Dundee since radical care changes.
The Mulberry Unit at Stracathro Hospital closed to acute inpatients in 2017 due to a shortage of junior doctors and Angus patients were forced to uproot to Dundee.
The decision to officially close the unit as a general adult psychiatry base came in 2018, despite a high-profile campaign to retain local health services.
Since February 2017, the Carseview clinic in Ninewells Hospital has admitted 212 patients who would have been seen at Stracathro.
A total of 461 admissions were made involving Angus residents between February 2017 and February this year, including 19 intensive psychiatric care unit (IPCU) patients.
Angus patients spent 16,707 bed days in the new Mulberry ward at Carseview, in Dundee, for mental health admissions.
Brechin Community Council chairwoman Jill Scott said: “All the predictions have proved to be correct.
“Nobody listened then and nobody will listen now.
“What does it take for those who claim to have our best interests at heart to realise that these vulnerable Angus patients need to be given adequate and proper care?
“We had a purpose-built facility providing the best possible care and outcomes for patients.
“Now they are being herded into a facility miles from home and bursting at the seams.
All this is done in the name of economy.
“Shame on every single person involved in the decision that closed Mulberry Unit, leaving many patients and family members in a state of distress.
“NHS Tayside must act in the best interests of these vulnerable patients and re-open Mulberry.
Scottish Conservative MP Kirstene Hair said the figures show the Stracathro unit is “still sorely missed.”
She said: “The closure of the Mulberry Unit at Stracathro was a blow for local healthcare and a sad day for many who relied on the facility – or knew someone that had.
“I still strongly believe it was a mistake and that it should be re-instated.
“I appreciate the medical staff at Ninewells do a great job under high pressure but these figures are concrete evidence of how valuable the unit in Angus was to local residents.
“It is sorely missed by the people who needed it most, who should have been at the centre of the decision-making.
“The so-called consultation was a tick-box exercise which was shown to be deeply unfair.”
Perth and Kinross Health and Social Care Partnership host General Adult Psychiatry inpatient services in Tayside.
A spokesperson said, “It is important to remember that most people with a mental health problem are treated at home or in the community. When it is no longer possible to do this safely, a patient will be admitted to hospital.
“Approximately only 6% of people who access our mental health services each year need hospital care.
“Angus residents were admitted to General Adult Psychiatry beds outside of Angus prior to the 2017 relocation of the Mulberry Unit from the Susan Carnegie Centre at Stracathro Hospital and whilst the move of Mulberry was a change – the practice of admitting patients based on clinical need has not changed.
“Community Mental Health Teams and services in Angus continue to provide high quality care to those using outpatient services and at home.
“We have also been redesigning services to adapt to the changing needs of our populations and new services have been introduced to manage people in crisis and support people to remain at home.
“Our communities would expect treatment to be available to them and their families when it is required and we remain committed to ensuring our patients can access the best treatment in the most appropriate place.”
GPs in Dundee are now able to prescribe spending time in nature to improve patients’ health and wellbeing as part of a pilot scheme.
A trial programme of “green health prescriptions” will be available from Lochee Health Centre, Whitfield Health Centre and Taybank Medical Centre.
The three Dundee GP practices will discuss with patients if it is appropriate to offer a nature-based intervention as part of their treatment or as a preventative measure.
The activities have been designed by NHS Tayside and will be printed on prescription paper.
NHS Tayside chief executive Grant Archibald said: “There is no doubt there is a strong connection between green space and good mental and physical health. Parks, woodlands and open spaces make a real difference to how happy we feel.
“They also improve our immune system and encourage physical activity and social interaction.”
The Dundee Green Health Partnership (DGHP) will signpost green initiatives and raise awareness about the positive impact that nature can have on people’s health.
The project is a collaboration between NHS Tayside, Dundee City Council, the voluntary sector, Dundee University, Abertay University and local community initiatives.
Neighbourhood services convener, councillor Kevin Cordell, said: “I’m delighted to see a host of key partners coming together with a goal to use our wonderful outdoor spaces to improve physical and mental health.”
Plans to turn a former city centre factory into offices have been submitted to the council.
The largely empty Locarno Works building near Dudhope roundabout is set to be revamped into offices for Wellbeing Works, a mental health group, if Dundee City Council gives the project official approval.
The proposed new Wellbeing offices could be open later this year, according to chief executive Wendy Callander.
She said: “The offices would be purpose-built and we are all excited about the plans.
“As an organisation, we provide support for people who have mental health challenges and we do that in a lot of different ways with various activities.
“We have working groups, arts and crafts, music and lots of different things to engage with people.
“This new site will give us the opportunity to extend the reach of that work.
“For instance, we would have a training kitchen to help people with domestic living skills such as cooking on a budget.
“We are also planning a cafe area where people could learn barista and cooking skills to help get back into work again. And all in a bigger, brighter building.”
City architects Andrew Black Design lodged an application with planners on behalf of Broughty Ferry firm Torridon Developments.
Although the upper part of the building is owned by the Embassy Snooker Club, a council planning spokesman revealed the space could be transformed into a main HQ for the mental health charity.
He said: “The applicant is considering the long-term future of the entire site and a redevelopment of Locarno Works.
“In the short term, it is proposed to refurbish part of the existing buildings to make them useable as office accommodation for Wellbeing Works, which would like to relocate from its current premises on Panmure Street.”
The organisation has to find £860,000 to balance its budget this year and aims to do this through a combination of cuts and price increases.
The cuts include reducing the resource budget of libraries – the money available for new books and periodicals – and cutting staff numbers through voluntary redundancy and early retirement.
The organisation, which also runs the McManus, Camperdown and Caird Park golf courses and the Olympia Swimming Pool, said it may not replace all departing staff in order to keep costs down.
Sean McNamara, head of the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals in Scotland, said cuts to library services can have serious long-term consequences.
He said: “We realise that council services are under severe financial pressure and difficult decisions need to be made.
“However, cuts to resources and staffing can impact on vital services that libraries provide for communities.
“Libraries and their skilled staff help improve literacy levels as well as tackling social isolation and supporting mental health and they also play a key role in the current digital strategy for Scotland by providing free access for people unable to get online at home.
“Any local authority considering cutting budgets must ensure they have fully assessed the long-term impact any cuts may have.
”Labour group leader Kevin Keenan said “slashing the culture budget” was the wrong thing to do when Dundee is trying to promote itself as one of Scotland’s leading cultural destinations.
He said: “Obviously, I am deeply disappointed to hear there is a potential load of job losses.
“When we are trying to attract people and tourists here with things like the V&A, slashing the culture budget does not seem like the thing to do.”
A report to Dundee City Council’s policy and resources committee this year revealed that Dundee has the highest percentage of citizens who are library users out of all of the Scottish authorities.
Nine of the 13 libraries showed an increase in visits in 2016-2017.
The Central Library is Scotland’s busiest.
Last year there were concerns cuts could lead to restricted opening times in some city libraries.
A spokesman for Leisure and Culture Dundee said there were currently no plans to reduce opening times.
He said: “There are no changes to opening hours at this time.”
The family of Avicii have set up a foundation in his name to support causes including mental illness and suicide prevention.
The Swedish DJ took his own life in 2018 while on tour in Asia.
The Tim Bergling Foundation “is our way to honour his memory and continue to act in his spirit,” say his family.
Tim Bergling is Avicii’s real name.
And people currently working on mental health in the music industry say that his legacy has already helped improve awareness in the field.
“One of the main issues Avicii’s death highlighted was the reluctance of men to talk about the subject of mental health,” Tristan Hunt from the Association For Electronic Music tells BBC Radio 1 Newsbeat.
He’s the co-chair of a group that’s working to improve mental and physical health among fans and professionals in the dance music industry.
‘Suicide cuts right across our society’
“His suicide brought into sharp relief just how many men suffer from this, especially within our industry.
“It’s not just electronic music. It cuts right across the industry, it cuts right across our society – but men do find it particularly hard to talk about.”
More recently, Keith Flint from The Prodigy died from hanging, which his Prodigy bandmate Liam Howlett confirmed as suicide on Instagram.
Foundation can bring light to ‘dark’ incident
One person who knows about how working in the music industry can affect your mental health is Manchester DJ and producer Ben Pearce, who says the anxiety and depression he has faced was brought on by working in music.
“I’m glad a foundation is being set up in Tim’s name,” Ben tells Newsbeat.
“It was a really awful tragedy but out of such a dark time, there can be a light. If the foundation helps anybody, I’m sure that will go to redress the balance.”
Ben says it’s “amazing” that anyone is committing time and resources to tackling mental health issues in the music industry.
“Just working in such a volatile industry like music, there are a lot of factors that can influence how your day to day life is,” he says.
“Schedules can change quite drastically and deadlines can change for a lot of people and that puts a lot of additional stress on.”
‘Avicii’s death has changed the music industry’
Since Avicii’s death, Tristan says the music industry has started to address the need for mental health provisions in the same way as it has been in schools and other businesses.
“Avicii’s death sadly brought that into sharp relief but I think one of his greatest legacies will be that he’s helped transform our industry in terms of giving mental health the importance it’s always needed,” he says.
“Now the focus has now been very much upon that to get it resolved.”
The Tim Bergling Foundation will also work on nature conservation and endangered species – among other issues.
The 26-year-old, who was also a semi-professional footballer, was found dead in north London.
The death of the former Love Island contestant Mike Thalassitis is not being treated as suspicious.
Police and the London ambulance service were called to a park close to Latymer Way, in Edmonton, north London, on Saturday. The police said a man was pronounced dead at the scene.
The 26-year-old reality television star and semi-professional footballer had found fame on the 2017 series of the ITV competitive dating show Love Island. He earned the nickname “Muggy Mike” after partnering with Olivia Attwood, the girlfriend of fellow islander Chris Hughes.
A statement from the Metropolitan police said: “Police were called to a park near Latymer Way, N9, at 9.28am on Saturday, 16 March. Officers and the London ambulance service attended and found a man, aged in his 20s, deceased.
“At this early stage, the death is not being treated as suspicious. Police are in the process of informing the man’s next of kin. A file will be prepared for the coroner.”
Thalassitis, who was of Cypriot descent, was born in Edmonton and played for clubs including Stevenage, St Albans, Chelmsford and Margate.
Tributes were left on Sunday outside the cafe that he planned to open. Bunches of flowers and a card were placed at the door to the business, the Skillett, in Loughton, Essex. The interior of the unit, on a small row of shops, appeared to be midway through a refurbishment.
His Love Island co-star Montana Brown had earlier written on Instagram: “I will help open your cafe with Scott because you worked so hard on it so don’t you worry!”
In the UK, Samaritans can be contacted on 116 123 or email email@example.com. In the US, the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline is 1-800-273-8255. In Australia, the crisis support service Lifeline is 13 11 14. Other international suicide helplines can be found at www.befrienders.org
The independent inquiry into mental health services in Tayside has retired to consider the key issues hampering the system’s ability to care for patients.
Launched following pressure from the families of suicide victims in Dundee, the inquiry’s evidence stage has concluded after receiving hundreds of submissions from the public.
Alongside other evidence, these will now be examined by the inquiry, chaired by former chief inspector of prisons David Strang.
Mr Strang said: “I am pleased with the response we have received to our public call for evidence. More than 200 people have submitted written documents and personal statements and there have been more than 60 oral evidence sessions held.
“Evidence has been submitted from a wide range of people including patients, families, carers, NHS employees and third-sector organisations.”
Agencies such as Police Scotland, student welfare teams and Dundee Drugs Misuse Commission have also contributed.
The evidence stage has taken several months, with discussions held with parties with an interest in improving mental health services.
The inquiry has visited psychiatric units including the Carseview Centre, the Rohallion Clinic and Stracathro in order to understand the systems currently in place.
The information it has gathered to date will be used to identify key issues in mental health services.
A statement from inquiry chiefs said: “The next stage of the inquiry’s work is to analyse all the data evidence, relevant government reports, statistical data, internal NHS review documents and data, in order to identify common themes which will then be the subject of further investigation and analysis.”
The inquiry was commissioned by NHS Tayside last year after campaign group Lost Souls of Dundee claimed it had identified at least 10 suicides which could have been prevented in the area.
Keith Flint, vocalist with the Prodigy, has died at the age of 49. He was found at his home in Essex on Monday.
The Prodigy released a statement confirming the news, saying: “It is with deepest shock and sadness that we can confirm the death of our brother and best friend Keith Flint. A true pioneer, innovator and legend. He will be forever missed. We thank you for respecting the privacy of all concerned at this time.”
Liam Howlett, who formed the group in 1990, wrote on Instagram: “I can’t believe I’m saying this but our brother Keith took his own life over the weekend. I’m shell shocked, fuckin angry, confused and heart broken ….. r.i.p brother Liam”.
An Essex police spokesman confirmed that a 49-year-old man had died. “We were called to concerns for the welfare of a man at an address in Brook Hill, North End, just after 8.10am on Monday,” he said.
“We attended and, sadly, a 49-year-old man was pronounced dead at the scene. His next of kin have been informed. The death is not being treated as suspicious and a file will be prepared for the coroner.”
With his punk aesthetic of piercings, spiked hair and intense stare, Flint became one of the UK’s most iconic musical figures in the 1990s. He joined the Prodigy as a dancer, later becoming a frontman alongside rapper Maxim. Aside from their 1992 debut, all of the group’s seven albums have reached No 1 in the UK, the most recent being No Tourists, released in November 2018.
Flint performed the vocals on the Prodigy’s best known singles, Firestarter and Breathe, which both went to No 1 in 1996. Firestarter became their biggest US hit and the group are often credited with helping to break dance music into the mainstream in the country.
Speaking to the Guardian in 2015, Flint lamented the state of modern pop music. “We were dangerous and exciting! But now no one’s there who wants to be dangerous. And that’s why people are getting force-fed commercial, generic records that are just safe, safe, safe.”
His success was hard won. Having grown up with dyslexia, he dropped out of school aged 15 and worked as a roofer in Essex before joining the Prodigy. He later weathered an addiction to prescription painkillers but became sober and married Japanese DJ Mayumi Kai in 2006. The couple later separated.
As well as his success with the Prodigy, Flint founded the successful motorcycle racing outfit Team Traction Control, which made its debut in 2014 and went on to win multiple Supersport TT titles.
The Prodigy played some of the biggest stages in the UK, including the 1996 Knebworth concerts headlined by Oasis and, in 1997 became the first dance group to headline Glastonbury. Festival organiser Emily Eavis paid tribute, calling their set “a huge, unforgettable moment”.
Eavis added: “He’s played here so many times with the Prodigy and was booked for 2019. What an incredible frontman.”
Gail Porter, who dated Flint between 1999 and 2000, simply wrote the word “heartbroken” on Twitter.
Further tributes have been made from his musical peers. Ed Simons of the dance duo the Chemical Brothers shared a memory of Flint on Instagram.
A post from the Chemical Brothers’ official Twitter account said Flint “was an amazing front man, a true original and he will be missed”.
Richard Russell, the head of the XL Recordings label that first signed the group, said on Twitter: “Devastated keith flint is gone. not just a great performer. he had total integrity & an incredible sense of humour. one of the sweetest people I’ve ever worked with. what a beautiful energy. what a gentleman. privileged to have known him. miss u keith.”
Sleaford Mods, whose frontman Jason Williamson collaborated with the Prodigy on the 2015 track Ibiza, tweeted: “Very sorry to hear of the passing of Keith Flint. Good night mate. Take it easy.” Another collaborator, the band Kasabian, described him as a “beautiful man” and “incredible pioneer”.
The rapper Professor Green said the Prodigy at the Brixton Academy in 2009 was “the best gig I’d ever seen, and still is till this day” and had inspired him to be a music star. He added: “Your music, your presence, your attitude. It all had such an influence on me. Saddened doesn’t even cut it.”
•In the UK, Samaritans can be contacted on 116 123 or email firstname.lastname@example.org. In the US, the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline is 1-800-273-8255. In Australia, the crisis support service Lifeline is 13 11 14. Other international suicide helplines can be found at www.befrienders.org.